• P-ISSN 2277-3525 E-ISSN 2582-7901

Journal of Multidisciplinary
Dental Research


Journal of Multidisciplinary Dental Research

Volume: 8, Issue: 2, Pages: 57-60

Original Article

Morphological Study on Development of Vascular Endothelium in Chick Embryo

Received Date:05 July 2022, Accepted Date:28 July 2022, Published Date:27 December 2022


The vascular endothelium and hematopoietic stem cells are believed to derive from common progenitor cells called hemangioblasts. However, morphological study on the development of vascular endothelial cell has been scarce. The present study is intended to provide more morphological explanation of the differentiation process of the hemangioblast. We performed histological observation, using 10 four-day-old chick embryos. After fixation with 4% concentration paraformaldehyde, hematoxylin eosin staining, toluidine blue staining and immunostaining were performed in that order for observation of morphological changes of the detected cells. Blood corpuscles were aggregated in the dorsal aorta and the heart (that had been observed to beat in its preparation). Some red blood cells showed immunoreactivity to both anti-Flk-1(VEGFR2) and anti-CD31 antibody. Additionally, some blood cells had small vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and they fused to form one larger vacuole ultimately a balloon-like shape that was connected to endothelial cells. These cells were present in close proximity to the vascular endothelium. We reveal that some of the early embryonic blood cells differentiate into vascular endothelial cells.

Keywords: Vasculogenesis, Angiogenesis, Hemangioblasts, Vascular endothelial cells


  1. Wang X, Xiong JW. Vascular endothelial cell development and underlying mechanismsYi Chuan2012;34(9):11141122. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23017452/
  2. Qiu J, Hirschi KK. Endothelial Cell Development and Its Application to Regenerative MedicineCirculation Research2019;125(4):489501. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1161/circresaha.119.311405
  3. Risau W. Mechanisms of angiogenesisNature1997;386(6626):671674. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/386671a0
  4. Folkman J, D'amore PA. Blood Vessel Formation: What Is Its Molecular Basis? Cell1996;87(7):11531155. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81810-3
  5. Nardi GM, Ferrara E, Converti I, Cesarano F, Scacco S, Grassi R, et al. Does Diabetes Induce the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Periodontal Tissues? A Systematic ReviewInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health2020;17(8):2765. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082765
  6. Johnstone S, Logan RM. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in normal oral mucosa, oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinomaInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery2007;36(3):263266. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2006.09.017
  7. Weng W, Sukowati WE, Sheng G. On Hemangioblasts in ChickenPLoS One2007;2(11). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001228
  8. Park C, Ma YD, Choi K. Evidence for the HemangioblastExperimental Hematology2005;33(9):965970. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2005.06.003
  9. Hara Y, Wake K, Inoue K, Kuroda N, Sato A, Inamatsu M, et al. Development of the Heart Endocardium at an Early Stage of Chick Embryos Evaluated at Light- and Electron-Microscopic LevelsThe Anatomical Record2016;299(8):10801089. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23372
  10. Ratajska A, Czarnowska E, Kołodzińska A, Kluzek W, Leśniak W. Vasculogenesis of the embryonic heart: Origin of blood island-like structuresThe Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology2006;288A(3):223232. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.a.20311
  11. Milgrom-Hoffman M, Harrelson Z, Ferrara N, Zelzer E, Evans SM, Tzahor E. The heart endocardium is derived from vascular endothelial progenitorsDevelopment2011;138(21):47774787. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.061192
  12. Hamburger V, Hamilton HL. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryoDevelopmental Dynamics1992;195(4):231272. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001950404
  13. Sato T, Kaneko M, Hama A, Kusakari T, Fujieda H. Expression of class II MHC molecules in the rat pineal gland during development and effects of treatment with carbon tetrachlorideCell and Tissue Research1996;284(1):6576. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s004410050567
  14. Adamo L, García-Cardeña G. The vascular origin of hematopoietic cellsDevelopmental Biology2012;362(1):110. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.09.008
  15. Jośsko J, Gwóźdź B, Jedrzejowska-Szypułka H, Hendryk S. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its effect on angiogenesisMed Sci Monit2000;6(5):10471052. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11208453/
  16. Herbert SP, Stainier DYR. Molecular control of endothelial cell behaviour during blood vessel morphogenesisNature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology2011;12(9):551564. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm3176
  17. Hervé MA, Meduri G, Petit FG, Domet TS, Lazennec G, Mourah S, et al. Regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor Flk-1/KDR by estradiol through VEGF in uterusJ Endocrinol2006;188(1):9199. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.1.06184
  18. Lertkiatmongkol P, Liao D, Mei H, Hu Y, Newman PJ. Endothelial functions of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) Current Opinion in Hematology2016;23(3):253259. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/moh.0000000000000239


© 2022 Published by International Dental Educationists’ Association (IDEA). This is an open-access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)


Subscribe now for latest articles, news.