• Print ISSN 2277-3525

Journal of Multidisciplinary
Dental Research

JMDR Policy


  • Scope of the journal
  • Open access policy
  • Types of submissions in JMDR

Editorial Policy

  • Authorship details: Authorship criteria, Contribution details, Author checklist, Corresponding author, Change in authorship details, Number of authors, Invited Authors.
  • Ethical considerations: Human subjects, Animal experiments, Conflicts of Interest, Scientific Integrity, Plagiarism, Replication, Image Integrity,  

Editorial Process

  • Review procedure
  • Appeals

Manuscript Preparation

  • General principles
  • Reporting guidelines
  • Manuscript format
  • Manuscript components: Title page, Abstract page, Introduction, Methods, Statistics, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgement, References, Supplementary material- Tables, Figures, Legends.
  • Other information: Abbreviation and Nomenclature, Units of Measurement, Corrections- Corrigenda, Errata, Addendum, Editorial note, Retraction, Language, Cover figure.

Manuscript Submission

  • Modes of submission
  • Submission of Revisions
  • Charges
  • Prints/Reprints
  • Copyright and Licensing
  • Help and Contact
  • Checklist



The Journal of Multidisciplinary Dental Research (JMDR) is the official publication of International Dental Educationists’ Association (IDEA). This is a peer reviewed, quarterly, print and online journal which provides open access to its contents.

JMDR intends to be a knowledge platform addressing research and innovation, clinical developments and treatment stratagems, newer techniques and technology and advances in dental education with the eventual aim of furthering the science and art of dentistry.

Submission of a manuscript to JMDR will imply that it represents previously unpublished original work, either in part or as a whole, and that it must not be under consideration elsewhere for publication, and they are subject to the review process of the journal, and that if accepted for publication it will not be published elsewhere, in any language, without the consent of editor and publisher.



Manuscripts in the field of Dentistry and allied sciences that include Periodontology, Biomaterials and Bioengineering in Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Prosthesis, Orthodontics, Pedodontics, Oral Medicine and Radiology, Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Oral Surgery, Community Dentistry and Epidemiology and Dental pedagogy will be considered for publication by the Journal.

JMDR reserves the right of first consideration for publication of any work accepted for presentation at Quest or any other meeting/symposium/conference of the IDEA, and authors must not submit their work elsewhere for a period of a year following the presentation.  A manuscript may be considered for publication elsewhere if it has not been accepted for publication, or is not under active consideration by JMDR at the end of the one year period.


JMDR is an open access journal providing ‘gold’ open access with immediate open access to all the article contents on its website jmdr-idea.com soon after acceptance. The journal also permits the authors to self-archive the final accepted version of the articles on any OAI- compliant institutional/subject based repository.

The journal does not charge any processing fee or publishing charges.


Original research articles:
Primary investigations such as Randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and cross-sectional surveys. Up to 3000 words and up to 40 references.

Short communication:
Up to 1000 words excluding references and abstract and up to 5 references.

Case reports/ Case series:
New / interesting / very rare cases that contribute significantly to the existing knowledge will be given priority. Mere reporting of a rare case may not be considered. Up to 2000 words and up to 10 references.

Technical note:
Articles that concisely describe an innovative methodology, instrumentation or development and novel modification of a pre-existing procedure, hitherto unpublished. The innovation should be of practical value to the field of dentistry. Up to 2000 words and up to 10 references.

Review articles:
Articles of special interest and those entailing an update on any of the topics identified as subjects for this journal will be accepted. Up to 3500 words and up to 40 references.

Letter to the Editor:
A concise commentary or observation concerning an article published in the journal.  The authors for Letters to the Editor must be experts having original research published in peer-reviewed journals concerning the field of discussion. A Letter when accepted for publication will be sent to the author/s of the original article, if applicable, for their response. Up to 500 words and up to 5 references.

Guest editorial:
A considered opinion on a specific topic or thought of importance in dentistry. Experts in the various fields of dentistry will be solicited by the editorial board for the guest editorial. The topic of discussion can be the author’s choice or will be identified by the editorial board. Unsolicited guest editorial will be considered in exceptional cases solely on the discretion of the editorial board. Up to 800 words and up to 10 references.

Book Reviews: 
Review of a book relating to fields of dentistry as detailed in the scope of the journal will be performed by expert reviewers on the invitation of the editorial board.

Announcement of conferences, meetings, courses, awards and other events of interest to the readers should be submitted with the name and address of the person from whom additional information can be sought. Up to 100 words.


JMDR has adopted the guidelines of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) in order to maintain high standards of research and publication practices. IDEA and JMDR believe in wider and hassle free dissemination of research work for the greater good of research community. Towards this effect JMDR follows the blinded peer review process and open access policy for journal publication.

Being responsible members of the planet and society, IDEA and JMDR exhort all its reviewers, contributing authors and readers to follow the ‘Green Initiative’ and reduce consumption of paper in manuscript preparation and communication with the editorial team. No print/reprints will be provided to authors as a part of this initiative. JMDR publishes a limited number of printed copies of each issue only to subscribers and upon special request.



Authorship criteria:
JMDR adheres to the ICMJE recommendations in defining and delineating the role of an author. Authorship credit of a manuscript will be based only on substantial contributions to each of the following criteria: 

  1. Concept and design of study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; and
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

In addition, an author should be able to identify the specific responsibility of each co-author in the work undertaken. Contribution details of each author should be provided during manuscript submission. Participation only in the form of acquisition of funding, the collection of data or the general supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. All such contributors should be listed as acknowledgements.

Contribution details:
JMDR will not define order of authorship. The order of naming the contributors should be a joint decision of all the authors and is generally based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript. Authors should include a description of contributions towards the manuscript during submission. The same will be indicated when the article is published. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concept, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review.

Author checklist and essential documents:
All authors of the submitted manuscript should submit the covering letter, contribution details, ethical considerations, conflict of interest, copyright assignment form,

Corresponding author:
The authors should nominate amongst them, one contributor as the corresponding author. The corresponding author will be responsible for all the communication between the editorial office and the authors. This will be purely an administrative role and not dependent upon factors such as seniority or order of authorship. Contact details such as address and e-mail of the corresponding author will be published in the article in order to facilitate reader interaction.

Change in authorship details:
Any changes thereof, in the nature of authorship such as deletion or addition of an author, modifications in the order of authors, before manuscript publication, will require a justifiable and detailed explanation along with signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added or whose order is seeked to be changed.

Invited Authors:
Book reviews and Guest editorials will be written by authors invited by JMDR. They shall be experts with substantial work performed in the field of discussion/the book.



Human subjects:
JMDR requires author declaration for any research involving human subjects stating that all procedures in the research were undertaken with the formal approval by the responsible committee (either institutional or national). In the absence of such ethics committee the authors should declare that the experiments conformed to the principles set out in the WMA Declaration of Helsinki and icmr guidelines. The declaration should also include a statement that informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Any documentation in this regard should be submitted to the editor or reviewers upon request.

Any restrictions on the availability or on the use of human data or samples should be clearly specified in the manuscript. Any restrictions that may detract from the overall impact of a study or undermine its reproducibility will be taken into account in the editorial decision.

Right to privacy: Patients’ right to privacy should not be infringed upon without informed consent. Identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be disclosed in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that an identifiable patient be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication. 

Clinical Trial based Research: All research involving clinical trials conducted in India should be registered with Clinical Trial Registry India. Clinical trials conducted outside of India have to be registered with other registries as applicable. The trial registration number should be provided along with the submission.

For clinical trials reporting, the authors should fill out a CONSORT flow diagram and submit it as supplementary information. The journal also encourages authors to follow the CONSORT reporting guidelines http://www.consort-statement.org.

Animal experiments:
Authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed along with the formal approval by the responsible committee (either institutional or national). JMDR encourages the authors to follow the animal research ethics as detailed by the International Association of Veterinary Editors’ consensus author guidelines on animal ethics and welfare (http://veteditors.org/ethicsconsensusguidelines.html) and icmr.nic.in/guidelines. All experiments should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated.

Manuscripts should be accompanied by a statement that all efforts were made to minimize animal suffering, to reduce the number of animals used, and to utilize alternatives to in vivo techniques, if available.

Conflict of Interest Declaration:
All authors of must disclose any and all, actual or potential, financial or other (political, academic or personal) conflicts of interest that may inappropriately influence the research. Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript. Full disclosure to the Editor including, absence of any conflicts of interest is an absolute requirement.

Scientific Integrity:
JMDR purposes to maintain high standards of scientific integrity in publishing scientific articles. The journal adheres to the recommendations as laid out by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The journal will investigate suspected cases of scientific misconduct in the submitted manuscripts or published papers including fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, inappropriate image manipulation or processing, misrepresentation, duplicate publication and others. If any such misconduct is detected the journal may suitably opt to publish errata, corrigenda or retract the article.

Plagiarism: Plagiarism is wrongful appropriation of others’ published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or consent, and presenting them as one’s own original work. This applies to all forms of documents, published (print or electronic) or unpublished. Plagiarism includes secondary source, invalid source, paraphrasing, misleading attribution, verbatim plagiarism and complete plagiarism among others. All submissions to JMDR requires to be free from plagiarized material. The authors are requested to follow correct citation methods and to avoid verbatim reproduction of text material from reference article even when the article is cited in the paper.

Detection of plagiarism would lead to rejection/retraction of the manuscript and debar the concerned authors from publication in JMDR. The Journal may also publish such correspondence in its pages to inform its readers of scientific misconduct.

Replication: JMDR mandates the authors to desist from Dual/Multiple submission which could potentially result in dual/multiple publication of the article.  Secondary analyses of clinical trial data should cite any primary publication, clearly state that it contains secondary analyses/results, and use the same identifying trial registration number as the primary trial.

An undertaking towards this effect detailing any form of prior publication in whole/or in part has to be submitted with the reasons for republication. Previous publication of an abstract or a preliminary report in the proceedings of meetings (print or electronic) does not preclude subsequent submission for publication, but this information must be provided at the time of submission.

Replication of scientific research will result in rejection/retraction of the manuscript and disbarment of the authors barred from future submissions. JMDR may also publish such correspondence in its pages to inform its readers of scientific misconduct.

Image integrity:
JMDR discourages inappropriate manipulation of images submitted along with the manuscript. Certain image processing such as addition of arrow/arrowhead, magnification scale or use of blackbox to mask the eyes. Excessive or fraudulent manipulation of images, if detected will result in the stalling of the review process. The authors should submit the unprocessed data and metadata files upon request. The review process will resume depending upon the editorial decision.

All unoriginal drawings, flowchart, photographs should be accompanied by a consent letter by the original authors or illustrator for publication in the journal.




The review process commences soon after the submission of the manuscript. All communications thereafter will be directed to the corresponding author only. The entire review process is completely done online to ensure speed, efficiency and eco-friendliness.

  1. Editorial Review: The initial process involves editorial verification of the suitability of the manuscript to be published in the journal. Format of submission, Originality, Impact, Scientific and Technical tenability will be assessed and manuscripts adhering to the same will proceed forward in the review process. Manuscripts that are returned back to the authors will be earmarked either as ‘rejected’ or ‘resubmission with modifications’. Resubmission with modifications would require the authors to do the necessary changes following the editorial instructions and rejection would mean the end of review process.

Editorial Decision



Manuscript proceeds for Peer review


The article cannot be published.

Resubmission with modifications

Authors have to resubmit the manuscript according to the editorial instructions.

  1. Peer Review: The selected manuscripts would then proceed for Peer review by two independent reviewers who will remain blinded to the authors and source of the manuscript. The selection of the expert reviewers is solely an editorial discretion. The main criteria for selection will be Area of expertise, Merit and Double blinding. During manuscript submission, the authors are requested to suggest three reviewers with experience in the field of the submission. This however, does not imply review of the submitted manuscript by the suggested reviewers.

Reviewers from all branches of dentistry as well as applied basic sciences are to be included in the review board. There should be a set of both internal and external reviewers but no exceeding 25. After screening manuscripts for originality and plagiarism check by the editorial board, the articles are sent to reviewers.     The editorial office will then convey the reviewer comments/suggestions/decisions to the authors. The reviewer recommendations will be broadly grouped into four categories.

Reviewer Decision



Manuscript proceeds for Technical review


The article cannot be published.

Considered after minor amendments

Amendments will require the authors to act upon the critiques of the reviewer in order to clarify, justify or rectify. Once the corrections are completed to the editorial satisfaction the manuscripts will proceed for Technical review.

Considered after major amendments

The modified manuscripts will be resent to the same reviewers for scrutiny. Upon their approval the article will be considered for publication by the editor.

Resubmission of revised manuscripts after editorial review and peer review should be done within a time period of three months. The process may be repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript.  Accepted manuscripts will then proceed for technical review. Authors wanting a printed copy of the issue with their article should complete the payment process before the Technical review.

  1. Technical Review: Manuscripts accepted for publication will further undergo a technical review wherein grammar and format are analyzed. The authors may be requisitioned to apply any modifications thereof. Page proofs in pdf format are then sent to the authors for final verification and approval. The corrected proofs should be submitted back within three days and any corrections thereafter will not be possible. If not returned within the stipulated time, the proof version will be considered as final. Any major modifications at this stage will result in the review process all over again.

JMDR will accept appeals by the authors on editorial or reviewer decisions. Thorough evaluation will ensue any justifiable appeal.



JMDR follows the recommendations laid down by the ICMJE (Authors please refer http://www.icmje.org for further details). All manuscripts must be prepared in accordance to the journal specifications.

The original research submissions should follow the ‘IMRAD’ structure which is explained in the Manuscript format section. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats as detailed in the reporting guideline section.


JMDR follows reporting guidelines as suggested by ICJME to facilitate easy and better evaluation by editors, reviewers and readers. Authors are requested to follow the EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines for the following:


Type of Study


Randomized controlled trials


Studies of diagnostic accuracy


Systematic reviews and meta-analyses


Observational studies in epidemiology


Meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology


Consensus based clinical case reporting





  • All manuscripts should be prepared in A4, normal margin settings, single column, using Times now font- size 12, double line spacing throughout.  
  • Page numbering is mandatory.  
  • Header or footer with article title is optional.
  • Please consider the reporting guideline suggested in the previous section.
  • In addition to the main article file, each manuscript submission should be accompanied by a. covering letter, b. title page, c. abstract file, (d. main article file), e. supplementary material, f. copyright transfer form, g. suggested reviewers.

The details are described in the following section.



Manuscripts should include and be prepared as follows:

(Each section should be started in a fresh page)


    1. Covering letter: which details the authors’ intent of publishing the scientific article in JMDR and a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors.

Covering letter should comprise the following details.

Disclaimers, a statement by the author/s mentioning that the results obtained, views or conclusions of the study are his/her/their own and not an official position of the institution or funder.

Source(s) of support, these include any kind of facilitation towards the study such as grants, equipment, materials like drugs etc.

Conflict of interest declaration, is mandatory and has to be clearly stated so even in the absence of any conflicts. Any conflict of interest has to be stated with the nature of conflict being clearly explained.

Details of any prior presentation of the study, which details the meeting/conference, the host organization, place and exact date of presentation.

The letter should include signatures of all authors.


    1. Title page: which includes,

Article title not exceeding 100 characters including spacing. Abbreviations should not be used in the title. The title should not be in all capitals and must be entered in Title case.

Short running title not exceeding 6-7 words.

Category of article, indicating whether the article is original research, case report, metanalysis or review etc.

Author information, which contains Location of the department or institution where the study was performed. The list of authors as it should appear in the published article with superscripts used next to each author and the corresponding full names and complete postal address of each author should be specified in the page.

Corresponding author details, with name, address, phone numbers, facsimile numbers and e-mail address.

Registration number and registering agency, in case of a clinical trial.

Word count, the total word count for the main text of the article excluding abstract, references, tables and figure legends. A separate word count of the abstract page.

Number of images and tables, should be mentioned separately.


    1. Abstract page: A structured and a concise representation of the scientific work carried out should be detailed in this page. Any material not explained in the main article text should not be mentioned in the abstract. References should not be included in the abstract.

Original articles should include an abstract under the headings- Background/Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusions.

The overall word count for the abstract for original research is 250 and for case reports and review is 150 words.

Suitable keywords, about 6-8 in number and in alphabetical order, should be provided. The authors are encouraged to use keywords as obtained from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database of National Library of Medicine, USA.


    1. Main article file: The main text of the article should not contain any direct or oblique references to the identification of either the authors or institution. Failure of blinding will result in the article being returned to the corresponding author. The text of original research articles should be prepared in the IMRAD format- Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The format for other article types is mentioned in reporting guidelines section.


Introduction: A statement on the purpose of research or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. The introduction should be brief, specific and include a literature review of only directly pertinent references. Any data or conclusions of the study being reported should not be included.

Methods: All the materials used and methodology employed should be pertinently explained such that the results obtained can be reproducible by others.

The ethical issues involved in the study and permissions obtained for the same has to be included. In case of absence of the permitting agencies, the authors should include a statement of adherence to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki or ICMR guidelines. Informed consent from adults and children participating in the study should be obtained and the same should be mentioned in the manuscript.

All information regarding the study participants should be described including source population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, selection of observational or experimental participants and demographic data of relevance.

The study design including interventions, methods of measurement, data collection and measurement, loss of data, if any and outcome measures should be described.

The time period of the study in terms of month and the year should be mentioned.

The apparatus, reagents, products tested or used should be identified along with the manufacturer’s name and address. Any drug if used, should include generic name, dosage and route of administration.

The procedure employed should be explained in sufficient detail. All established methods, including statistical methods, used in the study should be referenced, any published but less well known procedures should additionally include brief descriptions, any new or substantially modified methods used should be accompanied by description of the method and the reasons for using them, also evaluate their limitations.

Statistical methods employed in the study should be sufficiently explained in order to permit verification of reported results. Whenever possible findings should be quantified and appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty should be presented. Statistical terms, abbreviations and symbols should be defined. Software (name and version) used for statistical analysis should be specified. Use upper italics (P=0.042) and all P values should include exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001.

Studies of clinical trial should indicate trial registration number and details of registration agency.

Results: Should accurately describe the findings of the study and follow the logical sequence as in the text, tables and figures. Data repetition in text should be avoided. All data on primary and secondary outcomes identified should be provided. Nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, viz., random, normal, significant, correlation, sample, should be avoided.

Discussion: is the summation text of the main findings of the study deliberating the possible mechanisms or explanations for the same. Any important or new facets to the study undertaken should be emphasized. Any new hypotheses should be stated, but have to be labeled as such. Limitations if any have to be stated along with the implications and future research directions of the study.

Any unjustifiable extrapolation of the study results, unqualified comments, claiming priority and alluding to uncompleted work, or inappropriate statements of economic benefit have to be avoided as are data repetition.

Acknowledgement: All contributors not meeting the authorship criteria can be listed for acknowledgement. This includes purely technical help, general supervision, writing assistance, language and grammar editing and proofreading etc. The nature of contribution by each individual towards the study should be mentioned along with the acknowledgement.

    1. Supplementary material: All tables, graphs, images with legends pertaining to the article should be submitted in a separate file and not attached along with the main article file.


  • Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of appearance in the text citation.
  • Each title should be aptly titled.
  • Additional matter should be placed in footnotes. This includes nonstandard abbreviations and symbols.
  • Symbols that can be used in order are: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡.
  • Borrowed, modified and adapted tables should be included only after obtaining permission and a credit line should be provided in the footnote.


  • Glossy, unmounted color photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable. Digital images should be in JPEG/TIFF format with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels.
  • They should not be pasted on the main article file and can be uploaded/sent separately.
  • The images should be numbered in the order of appearance in the text.
  • Image manipulation is not allowed. Minor processing like cropping of unwanted areas, addition of arrow/arrowhead and face deidentification is only allowed. Any letters or symbols on the images should be clear, legible and in contrast with the background even during any image processing (eg. size, format realignment) done during publication.
  • Patient deidentification is mandatory. Care should be taken to include eyes and eyebrows for masking. Methods of deidientification acceptable are- Cloning of neighboring skin, Blurring, Opaque box, Coarse pixelization. Informed consent from patient for use of photographs must be taken.
  • All images should be accompanied by a Legend which comprises Image number as cited in the text, title and a brief description if necessary. The legend should not be typed or included over the image. Maximum word limit for legend is 40.
  • For photomicrographs please include magnification scale, stain/s used.
  • Borrowed/adapted/modified images should be accompanied by letter of permission to use them and a credit line in the legend.
  • JMDR reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size
  • When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied. Minimum resolution for graphs are 600 dpi.
  • Any illustration, flowchart or representations should be professionally made in a digitized format. Handwritten or freehand drawing will not be accepted.


References: JMDR follows the ICJME recommendations for referencing. Authors are requested to visit www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html and www.icmje.org for more details.

General considerations: Authors should refrain from unnecessary exhaustive citation but rather should use fewer but appropriate referencing. Direct references to original research sources should be provided whenever possible. References should not be used by authors, editors, or peer reviewers to promote self-interests. Use of abstracts and personal communications as references should be avoided. Information from papers submitted for publication but not accepted should be cited in the text as ‘unpublished observations’ with written permission from the source. Retracted articles should not be included. Authors are advised to check for any retraction either from the journal where an article has been published or through MEDLINE by searching PubMed for “Retracted publication [pt]”, where the term “pt” in square brackets stands for publication type, or by going directly to the PubMed’s list of retracted publications (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term+retracted+publication+[pt]).

Citation in text: References should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. The references should be numbered in Arabic numerals as superscript.  References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure. References included at the end of a sentence or part of a sentence should be placed after the punctuation mark.

Citation at the end of the article: The full list of references should include the names of authors, the full title of the journal article or book chapters; the title of journals abbreviated according to the Index Medicus style (www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html) the year of publication, the volume number and the first and final page numbers of the article or chapter. If there are six or fewer authors in the study being cited, the names of all the authors should be given. If there are more than six authors, the names of the first six authors should be given followed by et al. Articles published online but not yet assigned to an issue may be cited using the DOI. Online citations should include the date of access.

The authors should check that the references are accurate; lack of accuracy may result in the rejection of an otherwise adequate manuscript.

Some examples of common forms of references (as based on ICMJE and NLM) are:

Articles in Journals 

Standard journal article

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume the month and issue number may be omitted.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.

More than six authors, List the first six authors followed by et al.:

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation: 

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed PMID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.

Optional addition of a clinical trial registration number: 

Trachtenberg F, Maserejian NN, Soncini JA, Hayes C, Tavares M. Does fluoride in compomers prevent future caries in children? J Dent Res. 2009 Mar;88(3):276-9. PubMed PMID: 19329464. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00065988.

Organization as author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

Both personal authors and organization as author (List all as they appear in the byline.) 

Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.

No author given

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Article not in English 

Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

Volume with supplement

Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

Issue with supplement

Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

Volume with part

Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.

Issue with part

Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.

Issue with no volume

Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.

No volume or issue

Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.

Pagination in roman numerals

Chadwick R, Schuklenk U. The politics of ethical consensus finding. Bioethics. 2002;16(2):iii-v.

Type of article indicated as needed

Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.

Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S105.

Article containing retraction

Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11.

Article containing a partial retraction: 

Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction after removal of eroded slings. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749. Partial retraction of: Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4.

Article retracted

Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(12):909-11. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63(2):169.

Article partially retracted: 

Starkman JS, Wolter C, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid urethral slings. J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1040-4. Partial retraction in: Starkman JS, Wolder CE, Gomelsky A, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. J Urol. 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2749.

Article republished with corrections

Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183(1-2):123-6.

Article with published erratum

Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. 2000;22(10):1151-68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther. 2001;23(2):309.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version

Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Books and Other Monographs

Personal author(s)

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Author(s) and editor(s)

Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

Organization(s) as author

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.

American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.

Chapter in a book

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Conference proceedings

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

Conference paper

Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

Scientific and technical report:

Akustsu T. 1974. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (ML); National Institutes of Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; Apr. Report No; NH-NHLI 69-2185-2194.


Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.


Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Unpublished Material

Forthcoming and Preprints

Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.

Alvarez R. Near optimal neural network estimator for spectral x-ray photon counting data with pileup. arXiv:1702.01006v1 [Preprint]. 2017 [cited 2017 Feb 9]: [11 p.]. Available from: https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.01006.

Bar DZ, Atkatsh K, Tavarez U, Erdos MR, Gruenbaum Y, Collins FS. Biotinylation by antibody recognition- A novel method for proximity labeling. BioRxiv 069187 [Preprint]. 2016 [cited 2017 Jan 12]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/069187.

Kording KP, Mensh B. Ten simple rules for structuring papers. BioRxiv [Preprint]. 2016 bioRxiv 088278 [posted 2016 Nov 28; revised 2016 Dec 14; revised 2016 Dec 15; cited 2017 Feb9]: [12p.]. Available from: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/11/28/088278  doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/088278.

Rupprecht C. Ready for more-than-human? Urban residents’ willingness to coexist with animals and plants. Version: 1. SocArXiv [Preprint]. [posted 2016 Jul 13; revised 2016 Dec 07; cited 2017 Feb 15]: [22 p.]. Available from: https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/hbcmz/.

Electronic Material

Journal article on the Internet 

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htmArticle

Parija SC, Khairnar K. Detection of excretory Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the urine, and detection of E. histolytica DNA and lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus for the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess .BMC Microbiology 2007, 7:41.doi:10.1186/1471-2180-7-41. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/7/41

Homepage/Web site 

eatright.org [Internet]. Chicago: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; c2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Available from: http://www.eatright.org/.

Part of a homepage/Web site 

American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Office of International Medicine; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.ama-assn.org/about/office-international-medicine

For citation of other published material like Newspaper article, Audiovisual material, Legal material, Map, Dictionary and similar references, CD ROM, Blogs, Contribution to blogs, Datasets, Software on internet and other resources kindly refer the website.




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  • Only standard abbreviations and nomenclature should be used.
  • Title and abstract should be bereft of abbreviations.
  • The abbreviation should be indicated next to the full spelled-out form where it appears first in the text.

Units of Measurement:
Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury. All haematologic and clinical-chemistry measurements should be reported in the Metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). Editors may request conventional or non-SI Units to be added by the authors before publications.

Corrections are published upon request or by the journal depending upon the requirement. All corrections are considered after due editorial review.

  • Corrigendum:  may be published to notify a significant error made by the author(s). It may include a communication by the authors and/or an editorial statement.
  • Errata: may be published to notify a significant error made by the journal.
  • Addendum: may be published upon request when additional data directly relevant to the study emerge and is subject to peer review.
  • Editorial note: may be published to notify/highlight a specific issue related to the study.
  • Retractions: published upon request of authors or institution and also in the event of scientific misconduct.

All articles need to be submitted in the English language. American English is the preferred format. Articles requiring grammar correction will be sent back to the authors. It is advisable to eliminate possible grammatical and spelling errors using several language editing software available online.

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Authors can suggest an image for inclusion as cover figure for the issue. This may be submitted as a separate file along with the manuscript. Image properties will be similar to that suggested in the images section. The decision to include an image for cover figure solely rests with the editorial team.



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Manuscripts for submission to JMDR can be sent via post, e-mail or online submission and tracking system.

  • Postal submission: Authors are requested to send two copies of typed manuscripts along with two sets of all images to the editorial office.

The Chief editor,

Journal of Multidisciplinary Dentistry,

Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences,

KK Campus, Maggula Post,

Virajpet 571218.

Since IDEA and JMDR have a deep interest and commitment towards protection of environment, as part of this ‘Green initiative’ we encourage paperless submission of manuscripts.

  • Online submission and tracking: Authors can upload the manuscript along with the images and other supplementary material through the JMDR website jmdr-idea.com. The online submission has been made to be author-friendly with instructions explaining each of the steps.

The editorial team may request for hard copies, only if necessary.

The corresponding author shall receive an acknowledgement of receipt from the editorial office soon after the manuscript submission.

Submissions of Revisions:
Submission of reviewed articles (after editorial review and peer review) can be done in the same mode as the initial submission. The authors should revise the manuscript as requested by the editorial team within a time period of three months. Any manuscript not returned after revisions during this time period will only be considered for resubmission.

There is no requirement, unless specifically asked for, to resend the covering letter, title page, license agreement during submission of revised manuscripts. Authors should include the editors or reviewers comments/observations along with their clarifications during the submission.

PDF format of the approved manuscripts after technical review will be sent back to the corresponding author via e-mail or through online submission and tracking system only. The corrected version has to be sent back within three days. Failure to do so may result in delay or refusal in publication.

Being an open access journal, JMDR does not charge for any processing fee or publication charges. Any incidental charges during manuscript preparation or submission is not incumbent upon JMDR. JMDR is not liable to pay any royalty, fee or refund to the authors arising either during manuscript preparation, submission or any proceeds that may arise after publication of the same.

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JMDR is an open access journal and publishes scientific content under the Creative Commons attribution-Non-commercial Share Alike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), unless it is notified to the author otherwise in writing.  By submitting the article the authors agree to have the license applied to your work which allows anyone to reuse the article in whole or part for non-commercial use, for free. Others are free to share and adapt the article as long as they give appropriate credit to the authors and the original source and adhere to the same licensing terms.

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